The adoption of the Paris Agreement is part of a long-standing effort by the scientific community to combat climate change. Seven other states signed the Paris Agreement but did not ratify it. The Paris climate conference was held from 30 November to 12 December 2015. This was the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 11). Delegations from some 150 countries participated in negotiations for a new comprehensive and legally binding agreement on climate change. The conference concluded with the adoption of the Katowice Climate Package, which sets out how the Paris Agreement will be implemented in a transparent and equitable manner for all. The package contains the main procedures and mechanisms that will put the Paris Agreement into force. In the run-up to the Paris meeting, the United Nations has instructed countries to present plans detailing how they intend to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These plans have been technically referred to as planned national contributions (INDC). As of December 10, 2015, 185 countries had introduced measures to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 or 2030. In 2014, the United States announced its intention to reduce its emissions by 26-28% from 2005 levels by 2025. To achieve this goal, the country`s Clean Power Plan should set limits for existing and projected emissions from power plants.
China, the country that emits the most greenhouse gases as a whole, has set a goal of reaching its carbon dioxide emissions „around 2030 and making the best efforts to reach an early peak.“ The Chinese authorities have also sought to reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% compared to 2005. While the Paris Agreement ultimately aims to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century, many studies evaluating the voluntary commitments of some countries in Paris show that the cumulative effect of these emission reductions will not be significant enough to keep temperatures below that ceiling. Indeed, the targets set by the target countries should limit the future increase in temperature between 2.7 and 3.7 degrees Celsius. At the same time, recent assessments of countries` developments in the framework of their climate targets in Paris indicate that some countries are already not meeting their commitments. Angola was the last country to ratify the climate agreement on 12 August 2020. Kyrgyzstan ratified on 18 February and Lebanon on 5 February. The United States, which has always ratified the UN`s 187 list, began withdrawing from the agreement in 2019 and will withdraw on November 4 of that year. President Donald Trump doubts that greenhouse gas emissions are causing dangerous levels of global warming.
The Foreign Affairs Council has adopted conclusions on climate diplomacy. The Council reaffirms that the EU will continue to be at the forefront of the fight against climate change on a global scale. It also recognizes the effects of climate change on international security and stability.